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Beh14 Jan Behrens, Axel Kistner, Andreas Nitsche, and Björn Swierczek. 2014. The Principles of LiquidFeedback. Interaktive Demokratie, Berlin.


  1. ^ a b Home page.
  2. ^ LiquidFeedback "is a democratic system in which most issues are decided ... by direct referendum" using a "voting system based on... the Schulze method."1
  3. ^ a b Etopia News L.A. talks with Andreas Nitsche.
  4. ^ "Back in 2009 the growing Berlin Pirate Party wanted to perpetuate the chances for every party member to participate in both the development of ideas and decisions. And they thought transitive proxy voting could be a promising idea."3
  5. ^ An initiative includes "a list of participants which are entitled to update the draft... During discussion of an issue, the initiators try to improve their draft in order to gain supporters." Beh14, p. 60-61.
  6. ^ The goal is "to perpetuate the chances for every party member to participate".3
  7. ^ a b Mission Statement.
  8. ^ "LiquidFeedback is... for proposition development and decision making."1 On the other hand, the designers "expect Liquid Democracy decisions to be introduced as suggestions into the decision making of representatives."7 Of the two purposes, decision is better documented than broad-based decision guidance, and might be the only one practised. Bear in mind, this is production software.
  9. ^ Undocumented, but the initiatives in the demo are simple texts, apparently entered by web forms. For example, Initiative i306: Metro line to Groningen.
  10. ^ Used by numerous Pirate Parties such as the German Pirate Party. See
  11. ^ Ultimately there is a "final decision".7
  12. ^ LiquidFeedback uses a conventional voting method (Schulze) to decide among alternative resolutions of an issue (initiatives), which must therefore be finite in number. Beh14, pp. 92-99.